[去 中 心 化]--社会需要进步

互联网之父呼吁软件工程师改造互联网

作者:Eureka

会议官网地址http://www.decentralizedweb.net/ 参加此次会议的人物都是在互联网或者去中心领域的大牛们,我觉得这些人必将带来去中心化的一场革命。同时我会抽出一些时间来介绍一下他们以及他们所进行的一些项目。分别在本站的人物项目 下。

报导内容翻译

上周三,在前旧金山的教堂,现互联网档案馆里,互联网的先驱和万维网联盟联合呼吁开发一种新的互联网——分散化的互联网。他们呼吁改变,呼吁行动,呼吁开发一种新的技术,保证网络的开放。

观众包括开发者、企业家和响应呼吁的的思想家。这些男人和女人(新的互联网不只需要父亲,也需要母亲)很多都留着长发,纹着纹身,伴随互联网长大,热爱网络,但也坚信并决定让网络变得更好。

分散化互联网会议是互联网档案馆的创始人Brewster Kahle举办的,受到了互联网档案馆、Ford基金会、谷歌、火狐等的赞助。这是一个高科技会议,也是一个复兴会议,会议的座位是教堂一排排的长椅,更加加重了这种感觉。一群有理想的年轻男女参与会议,领导明天的互联网事业。 与会者一致同意,今天的互联网存在很多问题。最显著的是监控问题,比如斯诺登曝光的棱镜门事件。还有阻断互联网的能力,比如中国的网络防火墙。

Tim Berners-Lee互联网的创始人和万维网财务官指出,现在的互联网离我们当初的梦想相去甚远。“我们曾梦想一个乌托邦的社会,找出一种理想的辩论和政府的形式,可是现在呢?”他质问道,“我们希望每个人都能创建他们自己的网页,到头来人们反而却害怕这么做。”

现在,及时最简单的功能人们都尚不能做到,因为我们有的并不是一个真实的、互相连接的互联网, 而是一个个小网络的集合。“人们在Facebook上有他们的好友,在Flicker上存放他们的照片,在LinkedIn上有他们的同事。就连想要将他们的照片分享给同事和朋友都做不到。这很蠢,如果你要将Flicker上的图片Facebook或者LinkedIn上面,要么告诉Flicker你的Facebook好友,要么将你的照片转移到Facebook和LinkedIn上去,或者建立一个第三方的App来连接他们。

他还批评了了互联网对隐私的侵犯,“用户签署的协议简直就是一个神话,”他指出,“一个要求的权限竟然不过分的神话,一个所有人都乐意自愿同意的神话,一个对所有人来说都是最佳选择的神话。”用户已经变成了市场机器。

“我为现在所有在使用互联网的人感到沮丧,”Berners—Lee说,“但好处是,我们可以使互联网分散化,而且现在这里的人正有能力做到。” Berners-Lee和其他发言人指出,现在互联网最核心的问题是它短暂的本质。网页“昙花一现,之后就删除”的现实——当业务关闭或者网站迁移的时候,打破了超链接——让互联网变得不可靠。

另一个问题是粗略的隐私保护,让用户不知道谁在监控他们的活动和数据。

但是,我们所有人又在使用互联网,Kahle承认。“因为这很有趣,就像一片丛林,在丛林中你可以尽情发挥。” 但是,“我们可以来一个帽子戏法,将它变的更可靠,保护隐私,仍然有趣,”他说“如果我们可以让人们通过发布东西来赚钱,而不必通过第三方,就更好了。”

他强调,“这一切还必须由代码来实现。”

“代码就是法律,”kahle说,“我们对网络编码的方式,就是我们在网络中生活的方式。”Kahle说,通过编码,我们可以保护隐私,我们可以改进修正案,可以让它更开放。

Electronic Frontier Foundation的作者和特别顾问Cory Doctorow提出了一个截然不同的方式:“如果你要节食,就要扔掉所有的奥利奥。” “我们要求将互联网分散化的原因,”Doctorow说,“就是因为集中化会带来种种问题,但是今天的互联网因为人们喜欢妥协,变得集中化了。” 解决这些问题的技术现在差不多都已经有了,我们需要的不过是将他们运用到工作的、统一的系统中。

这天将会是互联网开始改变的一天吗?分散化的网络将会是第一次黑客会议或 Mother of All Demos描述的那样吗?只有历史可以告诉我们。但是,组织者将所有成员聚集起来拍了一幅合照,如果分散化的网络真能实现,这副照片将永垂青史。

原文内容

Photo: Brad Shirakawa/Internet Archive
Tim Berners-Lee, creator of the World Wide Web, says today's Web has strayed far from the original dreams for the technology

On Wednesday, in the former San Francisco church that now serves as the headquarters of the Internet Archive, pioneers of the Internet and the World Wide Web joined together to call for a new kind of Web—a decentralized Web. It was a call for change, a call for action, and a call to develop technology that would “lock the Web open.”

And in the audience were the developers and entrepreneurs and thinkers who are going to try to answer that call. These men and women (because the next Web will have mothers as well as fathers), many sporting dreadlocks or tattoos, grew up with the Internet and love the Web, but believe it can be better and are determined to make it so.

This meeting, the Decentralized Web Summit, was part of a 3-day event organized by Brewster Kahle, founder of the Internet Archive, and sponsored by the Internet Archive, the Ford Foundation, Google, Mozilla, and others. It was as much a revival meeting as a tech conference, a feeling enhanced by the rows of pews that made up the seating. There was a lot of fan-boying and fan-girling going on, as the tech leaders of tomorrow buzzed about how they might get this or that luminary to sign their laptops. (Had there been printed programs—there were not—I’m guessing the rush for autographs would have been intense.)

Today’s Web has a number of problems, the attendees agreed; the most obvious being the kind of surveillance uncovered by Edward Snowden’s revelations and the ability to block access, like China’s Great Firewall.  

Tim Berners-Lee, who founded the Web and is now director of the World Wide Web Consortium, pointed out how far it has strayed from the original dreams for the technology. “That utopian leveling of society, the reinvention of the systems of debate and government—what happened to that?” he asked. “We hoped everyone would be making their own web sites—turns out people are afraid to.”

But even the basic things people want to do aren’t possible, because instead of being a true, interconnected web, it has become a collection of silos. “People have their friends on Facebook and some photos on Flickr and their colleagues on LinkedIn. All they want to do is share the photos with the colleagues and the friends—and they can’t. Which is really stupid. You either have to tell Flickr about your Facebook friends, or move your photos to Facebook and LinkedIn separately, or build and run a third application to build a bridge between the two.”

He also criticized the model of trading privacy for free access to things on the Internet, and said it doesn’t have to be so. “The deal the consumer makes is a myth,” he said. “It is a myth that it has to be, it is a myth that everybody is happy with it, it is a myth that it is optimal” for anybody, the consumers or the marketing machine.

“I’m frustrated on behalf of everybody using the Web at the moment,” said Berners-Lee. “But excited that we can really decentralize the web, and that we have the group of people here” who can do it.

Berners-Lee and other speakers at the event pointed out a key problem of the Web today is its ephemeral nature, only partly compensated for by Kahle’s Wayback Machine, an effort he himself called a kluge. The fact that web pages “blink on and offline,” when businesses close or web sites move, breaking hyperlinks, means the web is not reliable.

Another major problem is the sketchy privacy controls that leave users unsure about who and what is monitoring their activity and data.

Still, we’re all using the Web because, Kahle acknowledged, “It is fun. It’s a jungle out there, but it’s a fun jungle to go play in.”

It can be a lot better, however. “We can go for a trifecta, make it reliable, private, and still fun,” he said, and, “extra credit if we can make it that people can make money by publishing without going through a third party.”

This all must be “baked into the code,” he insisted.

 “Code is law,” said Kahle. “The way we code the Web is how we live our lives online.” We can bake privacy in, said Kahle, we can bake the first amendment in, and we can bake openness in.

Cory Doctorow, author and special advisor at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, put it a different way: “When you go on a diet,” he said, “throw away all your Oreos.”

“The reason the web ceases to be decentralized,” Doctorow said, “is that there are a lot of short-term gains to centralizing things. The Web is centralized today because people like you make compromises.”

Most of the technology to fix the web, the speakers agreed, already exists; it just must be identified and put into a workable, unified system.

Vint Cerf, known as the father of the Internet and now at Google, tossed out a rapid-fire list of suggestions about where to look for this technology. Among these, he asked the developers to:

Lee also had some advice:

And Kahle added to the list:  

EFF’s Doctorow said that, in addition to the right technology, the new Web must be based on some key moral principles that, like the U.S. Constitution, will prevent “our wise leaders of tomorrow” from being “pressured into making compromises.” He suggested two:

Was this the day the Web started to change? Will the Decentralized Web Summit be looked back on like, the first Hackers’ conference or the Mother of All Demos? Only history will tell, but just in case, the organizers gathered the group together for a big photograph. And if the Web becomes decentralized and permanently archived, this picture will never disappear.

What comes next is unclear, but the attendees appeared determined to figure it out. Said Kahle, “Do we need VC funding? There are foundations that could get us over the hump, is that what is needed? Or would money hinder rather than help? Should we have a series of conferences? What about prizes? What do we do now?”

Those sounded like questions, but really, they were a call to action, to the charged-up attendees to go out and do it.

Concluded Kahle. “Let’s go build the decentralized web!”

原文信息:


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